Trace amine receptor


Trace amine-associated receptors were discovered from a search for novel 5-HT receptors [1], where 15 mammalian orthologues were identified and divided into two families. The TA1 receptor has affinity for the endogenous trace amines tyramine, β-phenylethylamine and octopamine in addition to the classical amine dopamine [1]. Emerging evidence suggests that TA1 is a modulator of monoaminergic activity in the brain [2] with TA1 and dopamine D2 receptors shown to form constitutive heterodimers when co-expressed [3]. In addition to trace amines, receptors can be activated by amphetamine-like psychostimulants, and endogenous thyronamines.


  1. Borowsky B, Adham N, Jones KA, et al. Trace amines: identification of a family of mammalian G protein-coupled receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001;98:8966-71.
  2. Xie Z, Miller GM. Trace amine-associated receptor 1 as a monoaminergic modulator in brain. Biochem Pharmacol 2009;78:1095-104.
  3. Espinoza S, Salahpour A, Masri B, et al. Functional interaction between trace amine-associated receptor 1 and dopamine D2 receptor. Mol Pharmacol 2011;80:416-25.
Excerpt from IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology
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