Trace amine-associated receptors were discovered from a search for novel 5-HT receptors , where 15 mammalian orthologues were identified and divided into two families. The TA1 receptor has affinity for the endogenous trace amines tyramine, β-phenylethylamine and octopamine in addition to the classical amine dopamine . Emerging evidence suggests that TA1 is a modulator of monoaminergic activity in the brain  with TA1 and dopamine D2 receptors shown to form constitutive heterodimers when co-expressed . In addition to trace amines, receptors can be activated by amphetamine-like psychostimulants, and endogenous thyronamines.
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