Mammalian bombesin (Bn) receptors comprise 3 subtypes: BB1, BB2, BB3. BB1 and BB2 are activated by the endogenous ligands neuromedin B (NMB), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and GRP-(18-27). bombesin is a tetra-decapeptide, originally derived from amphibians. The three Bn receptor subtypes couple primarily to the Gq/11 and G12/13 family of G proteins . Each of these receptors is widely distributed in the CNS and peripheral tissues [1,2,3,4,5,6]. Activation of BB1 and BB2 receptors causes a wide range of physiological/pathophysiogical actions, including the stimulation of normal and neoplastic tissue growth, smooth-muscle contraction, gastrointestinal motility, feeding behavior, secretion and many central nervous system effects including regulation of circadian rhythm, body temperature control, sighing and mediation of pruritus [1,3,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14]. A physiological role for the BB3 receptor has yet to be fully defined although recently studies suggest an important role in glucose and insulin regulation, metabolic homeostasis, feeding, regulation of body temperature, obesity, diabetes mellitus and growth of normal/neoplastic tissues [2,15,16,17,18,19]. Bn receptors are one of the most frequently overexpressed receptors in cancers and are receiving increased attention for their roles in tumor growth, as well as for tumour imaging and for receptor targeted cytotoxicity [8,20,21,22].
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Ramos-Álvarez I, Moreno P, Mantey SA, et al. Insights into bombesin receptors and ligands: Highlighting recent advances. Peptides 2015;72:128-44.
Sano H, Feighner SD, Hreniuk DL, et al. Characterization of the bombesin-like peptide receptor family in primates. Genomics 2004;84:139-46.
Porcher C, Juhem A, Peinnequin A, et al. Bombesin receptor subtype-3 is expressed by the enteric nervous system and by interstitial cells of Cajal in the rat gastrointestinal tract. Cell Tissue Res 2005;320:21-31.
Zhang L, Parks GS, Wang Z, et al. Anatomical characterization of bombesin receptor subtype-3 mRNA expression in the rodent central nervous system. J Comp Neurol 2013;521:1020-39.
Moreno P, Ramos-Álvarez I, Moody TW, et al. Bombesin related peptides/receptors and their promising therapeutic roles in cancer imaging, targeting and treatment. Expert Opin Ther Targets 2016;20:1055-73.
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